Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)

The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is a method of quantifying disability in multiple sclerosis and monitoring changes in the level of disability over time. It is widely used in clinical trials and in the assessment of people with MS.

The scale was developed by a neurologist called John Kurtzke in 1983 as an advance from his previous 10 step Disability Status Scale (DSS). The EDSS scale ranges from 0 to 10 in 0.5 unit increments that represent higher levels of disability. Scoring is based on an examination by a neurologist.

To be eligible for HSCT Treatment in India the patient’s EDSS score should be less than 7.

EDSS Score Description

0.0Normal neurological examination
1.0No disability, minimal signs in one FS
1.5No disability, minimal signs in more than one FS
2.0Minimal disability in one FS
2.5Mild disability in one FS or minimal disability in two FS
3.0Moderate disability in one FS, or mild disability in three or four FS. Fully ambulatory
3.5Fully ambulatory but with moderate disability in one FS and more than minimal disability in several others
4.0Fully ambulatory without aid, self-sufficient, up and about some 12 hours a day despite relatively severe disability; able to walk without aid or rest some 500 meters
4.5Fully ambulatory without aid, up and about much of the day, able to work a full day, may otherwise have some limitation of full activity or require minimal assistance; characterized by relatively severe disability; able to walk without aid or rest some 300 meters.
5.0Ambulatory without aid or rest for about 200 meters; disability severe enough to impair full daily activities (work a full day without special provisions)
5.5Ambulatory without aid or rest for about 100 meters; disability severe enough to preclude full daily activities
6.0Intermittent or unilateral constant assistance (cane, crutch, brace) required to walk about 100 meters with or without resting
6.5Constant bilateral assistance (canes, crutches, braces) required to walk about 20 meters without resting
7.0Unable to walk beyond approximately five meters even with aid, essentially restricted to wheelchair; wheels self in standard wheelchair and transfers alone; up and about in wheelchair some 12 hours a day
7.5Unable to take more than a few steps; restricted to wheelchair; may need aid in transfer; wheels self but cannot carry on in standard wheelchair a full day; May require motorized wheelchair
8.0Essentially restricted to bed or chair or perambulated in wheelchair, but may be out of bed itself much of the day; retains many self-care functions; generally has effective use of arms
8.5Essentially restricted to bed much of day; has some effective use of arms retains some self care functions
9.0Confined to bed; can still communicate and eat.
9.5Totally helpless bed patient; unable to communicate effectively or eat/swallow
10.0Death due to MS